Computer Science Studies (BIT)

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 Computer Architecture (COMPLETE)

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shaista



Posts : 49
Join date : 2012-11-09

PostSubject: Computer Architecture (COMPLETE)   Sun Jan 25, 2015 5:52 am

Computer Architecture

Q. What is the Von Neumann idea about design of a computer?
Ans: In 1951 Von Neumann and his team proposed  the design of a stored program computer. According to
his design, a sequence of instructions (called a program) and the data are stored  in the memory of the
computer.  
Q. What is meant by computer architecture?
Ans:  Arrangement and connections of various components of the computer system is called  computer
architecture.  
Q. List out some important components of computer.
Ans: The most important components of computer architecture is as fallows.
 Control Unit
 Arithmetic & Logic Unit (ALU)
 Main Memory  
 I/O Unit  
 Bus Interconnection  
Q. What is CPU?
Ans: CPU stands for Central Processing Unit. It is the most important components of the computer. It is also
known as processor. CPU is considered as the brain of the computer. CPU performs all operations on data
according to program‟s  instructions.  It executes the program instructions and tells other  parts of the
computer what to do.
Q. What is ALU?
Ans: ALU stands for Arithmetic and Logic Unit. It is another important components of CPU. It performs all
the arithmetic and logical operations on the data.  
Q. What is Main Memory?
Ans:  The main memory is the most important component of the computer. It is used to store data and
instructions that are currently in use. Sometimes, main memory is also referred to as “working area” of the
computer.  
Q. What is address of a byte?
Ans: Each byte in the memory is assigned a unique number. This number is called the address of that byte.  
Q. What is RAM?  
Ans: RAM stands for Random Access Memory. Actually, the main memory is referred to as RAM. It is also
referred to as primary storage. The main memory (RAM) of the computer is volatile.  
1
Q. What is DRAM?  
Ans: DRAM stands for Dynamic Random Access Memory. In DRAM, individual cells are made by using
capacitors. This type of memory is used in most of the computers.
Q. What is SRAM?
Ans: SRAM stands for Static Random Access Memory. In SRAM, individual cells are made by using digital
gates. Each cell can hold its value without any need to refresh it frequently. It is faster than DRAM; because
it does not have to be refreshed with electric charge frequently.  
Q. What is Cache memory?
Ans:  Cache memory plays very important role in increasing the performance of a computer system. It
speeds up the processing speed of computer because CPU stores frequently used instructions and data in it.  
Q. What is ROM?
Ans: ROM stands for Read Only Memory. It is type of internal memory. The contents (i.e., instructions and
data) stored in this type of memory can only be read but cannot be changed or deleted. It is not possible to
write new instructions or information into the ROM. This is the reason why it is called read only memory.  
Q. What is bit.  
Ans: The binary digit 1 or 0 is called a bit. The „bit‟ stands for binary digit. It is the basic unit for storing
data in the computer memory.  
Q. What is Byte.  
Ans: A combination of 8-bits is called byte. One character takes one byte of memory. The storage capacity
of the memory is expressed in terms of number of bytes. The data and program size are also measured in
bytes.  
Q. What is computer Bus?
Ans: A set of electrical path through which computer (CPU) sends and receive data and instructions (and
also sends command signals) to and from different components of computer is called computer bus.  
Q. What are system buses?  
Ans: The system buses are also called the Internal Buses. The system Buses are the part of motherboard.
These are used to connect the main component of the computer such as CPU and main memory. The modern
purpose computers have 70 - 100 lines System Bus.  
Q. What is Data Bus?  
Ans: The computer Bus, which is used to transfer data from one component of computer to another, is called
data bus. It connects the CPU, memory unit and other hardware devices on the motherboard.  
Q. What is Address Bus?  
Ans:  The computer Bus, which is used to identify different components of the computer sa well as to
specify different memory locations within the main memory, is called address bus.  
Q. What is Control Bus?  
Ans: The computer Bus (or parallel lines), which is used to send different commands (or control signals)
from one component to another, is called Control Bus. The control bus directly connects the CPU, main
memory and I/O ports.  
Q. What is I/O unit?  
Ans:  I/O unit is very important component of computer. It is used to control different I/O devices such as
keyboard, monitor, printer, disk drives etc.  
Q. What are CPU Registers?  
Ans: CPU contains small storage areas that are used to store data and instructions during program execution.
The storage areas or locations inside the CPU are called registers. The size of these registers is 2 or 4 or 8
bytes.  
Q. What is meant by Instruction Set?
Ans: A set of instructions that a CPU can execute to perform different operations on data is known as the
instruction set of that CPU.  
Q. Define Fetch Instruction.  
Ans: The process of transferring a program instruction from memory to CPU is called  fetch instruction.
The CPU gets a program instruction from main memory for taking action on it.  
Q. Define Decode instruction.
Ans:  The process of decoding the instruction so that the computer can understand it is called  Decode
Instruction.  
Q. Define execute instruction.
Ans: The process of taking action on the decoded instruction is called Execute Instruction.  
Q. What is operating system?
Ans: A set of programs running in the background on a computer system and providing an environment in
which other programs can be executed and the computer system can be used efficiently.  
Q. Write the main functions performed by the operating system.  
Ans: The main functions performed by the operating system are:
 Manage Hardware Resources
 Memory Management  
 Load and Execute Programs  
 Data Security  
 Providing Interface to the Users  
Q. Define high-level programming language.  
Ans: The programming languages that are close to human languages (e.g. like English language) are called
high-level programming languages.  
Q. Define low-level programming language.
Ans:  The programming languages that are very close to machine language are called  low-level
programming language. The program instructions written in these languages are in binary from (0 and 1)
and symbols.  
Q. What is the difference between source code and object code?
Ans:  The program instructions written by  following the rules of any high-level language are known as
program source code. The translated program into machine code is known as object code.  
Q. What is compiler?
Ans: The language translator program that translates the complete source program into machine code as
whole is called compiler.  
Q. What is Interpreter?  
Ans:  The language translator program that translates the source code into machine code statement-by-
statement is called  interpreter.  It translates one statement of source program into machine code and
executes it immediately before translating the text statement.  
Q. What is Assembler?
Ans: The language translator program that translates the program written in assembly language into machine
code is called assembler.
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