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 Introduction To C Language (I-COM)

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PostSubject: Introduction To C Language (I-COM)   Mon Sep 16, 2013 7:03 pm

Introduction To Computer System
Q. What is computer? What are the different types of computer?
A computer is a device that accepts information (in the form of digitalized data) and manipulates it for some result based on a program or sequence of instructions on how the data is to be processed. Complex computers also include the means for storing data (including the program, which is also a form of data) for some necessary duration.
Q. Write a note on Generation of computer.
The late 1960s and early 70s, there was much talk about "generations" of computer technology. This photo illustrates what were commonly known as the three generations:
First generation:
Vacuum tubes (left). Mid 1940s. IBM pioneered the arrangement of vacuum tubes in pluggable modules such as the one shown here on the left. The IBM 650 was a first-generation computer.
Second generation:
Transistors (right). 1956. The era of miniaturization begins. Transistors are much smaller than vacuum tubes, draw less power, and generate less heat. Discrete transistors are soldered to circuit boards like the one shown, with interconnections accomplished by stencil-screened conductive patterns on the reverse side. The IBM 7090 was a second-generation computer.
Third generation:
 Integrated circuits (foreground), silicon chips contain multiple transistors. 1964. A pioneering example is the ACPX module used in the IBM 360/91, which, by stacking layers of silicon over a ceramic substrate, accommodated over 20 transistors per chip; the chips could be packed together onto a circuit board to achieve unheard-of logic densities. The IBM 360/91 was a hybrid second- and third-generation computer.
Fourth generation:
In this generation, there were developments of large-scale integration or LSI (1000 devices per chip) and very large-scale integration or VLSI (10000 devices per chip). These developments enabled the entire processor to fit into a single chip and in fact, for simple systems, the entire computer with processor; main memory and I/O controllers could fit on a single chip.
Fifth generation:
                Fifth generations computers are only in the minds of advance research scientists and being tested out in the laboratories. These computers will be under Artificial Intelligence (AI), They will be able to take commands in a audio visual way and carry out instructions. Many of the operations which require low human intelligence will be performed by these computers.
Q. Differentiate between analog and digital computer.
Analog computer:
An analog computer is a form of computer that uses the continuously-changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved. In contrast, digital computers represent varying quantities incrementally, as their numerical values change. Mechanical analog computers were very important in gun fire control in World War II and the Korean War; they were made in significant numbers. In particular, development of transistors made electronic analog computers practical, and before digital computers had developed sufficiently, they were commonly used in science and industry.
Digital computer:
            A digital computer is designed to process data in numerical form (see digital circuit); its circuits perform directly the mathematical operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The numbers operated on by a digital computer are expressed in the binary system; binary digits, or bits, are 0 and 1, so that 0, 1, 10, 11, 100, 101, etc., correspond to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc.
Q. Write a note on the history of the computer?
Computer History
Year/Enter
Computer History
Inventors/
Inventions
Computer History
Description of Event
Konrad Zuse - Z1 Computer
First freely programmable computer.
John Atanasoff & Clifford Berry
ABC Computer
Who was first in the computing biz is not always as easy as ABC.
Howard Aiken & Grace Hopper
Harvard Mark I Computer
The Harvard Mark 1 computer.
John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly
ENIAC 1 Computer
20,000 vacuum tubes later...
Frederic Williams & Tom Kilburn
Manchester Baby Computer & The Williams Tube
Baby and the Williams Tube turn on the memories.
John Bardeen, Walter Brattain & Wiliam Shockley
The Transistor
No, a transistor is not a computer, but this invention greatly affected the history of computers.
John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly
UNIVAC Computer
First commercial computer & able to pick presidential winners.
International Business Machines
IBM 701 EDPM Computer
IBM enters into 'The History of Computers'.
John Backus & IBM
FORTRAN Computer Programming Language
The first successful high level programming language.
Stanford Research Institute, Bank of America, and General Electric
ERMA and MICR
The first bank industry computer - also MICR (magnetic ink character recognition) for reading checks.
Jack Kilby & Robert Noyce
The Integrated Circuit
Otherwise known as 'The Chip'
Steve Russell & MIT
Spacewar Computer Game
The first computer game invented.
Douglas Engelbart
Computer Mouse & Windows
Nicknamed the mouse because the tail came out the end.
ARPAnet
The original Internet.
Intel 1103 Computer Memory
The world's first available dynamic RAM chip.
Faggin, Hoff & Mazor
Intel 4004 Computer Microprocessor
The first microprocessor.
Alan Shugart &IBM
The "Floppy" Disk
Nicknamed the "Floppy" for its flexibility.
Robert Metcalfe & Xerox
The Ethernet Computer Networking
Networking.
Scelbi & Mark-8 Altair & IBM 5100 Computers
The first consumer computers.
Apple I, II & TRS-80 & Commodore Pet Computers
More first consumer computers.
Dan Bricklin & Bob Frankston
VisiCalc Spreadsheet Software
Any product that pays for itself in two weeks is a surefire winner.
Seymour Rubenstein & Rob Barnaby
WordStar Software
Word Processors.
IBM
The IBM PC - Home Computer
From an "Acorn" grows a personal computer revolution
Microsoft
MS-DOS Computer Operating System
From "Quick And Dirty" comes the operating system of the century.
Apple Lisa Computer
The first home computer with a GUI, graphical user interface.
Apple Macintosh Computer
The more affordable home computer with a GUI.
Microsoft Windows
Microsoft begins the friendly war with Apple.

 
 
Q. Write a note on classification of computer.
Classification of Computers
o   Mainframe Computers
o   Minicomputers
o   Microcomputers
o   Supercomputers
Mainframe Computers :
Mainframe computers are very large, often filling an entire room.  They can store enormous of information, can perform many tasks at the same time, can communicate with many users at the same time, and are very expensive. . The price of a mainframe computer frequently runs into the millions of dollars.  Mainframe computers usually have many terminals connected to them.  These terminals look like small computers but they are only devices used to send and receive information from the actual computer using wires.   Terminals can be located in the same room with the mainframe computer, but they can also be in different rooms, buildings, or cities.  Large businesses, government agencies, and universities usually use this type of computer.
Mini Computers :
Minicomputers are much smaller than mainframe computers and they are also much less expensive.  The cost of these computers can vary from a few thousand dollars to several hundred thousand dollars.  They possess most of the features found on mainframe computers, but on a more limited scale.  They can still have many terminals, but not as many as the mainframes.  They can store a tremendous amount of information, but again usually not as much as the mainframe.  Medium and small businesses typically use these computers.
Microcomputers:
Microcomputers are the types of computers we are using in your classes at Floyd College.  These computers are usually divided into desktop models and laptop models.  They are terribly limited in what they can do when compared to the larger models discussed above because they can only be used by one person at a time, they are much slower than the larger computers, and they can not store nearly as much information, but they are excellent when used in small businesses, homes, and school classrooms.   These computers are inexpensive and easy to use.  They have become an indispensable part of modern life.
Supercomputers:
            A supercomputer is a computer at the frontline of current processing capacity, particularly speed of calculation.
Supercomputers are used for highly calculation-intensive tasks such as problems including quantum physics, weather forecasting, climate research, molecular modeling (computing the structures and properties of chemical compounds, biological macromolecules, polymers, and crystals), and physical simulations (such as simulation of airplanes in wind tunnels, simulation of the detonation of nuclear weapons, and research into nuclear fusion).
Supercomputers were introduced in the 1960s and were designed primarily bySeymour Cray at Control Data Corporation (CDC), which led the market into the 1970s until Cray left to form his own company, Cray Research.
Q. Write a note on characteristics of computer.
Let us identify the major characteristics of computer. These can be discussed under the headings of speed, accuracy, diligence, versatility and memory.
Speed
            As you know computer can work very fast. It takes only few seconds for calculations that we take hours to complete. Suppose you are asked to calculate the average monthly income of one thousand persons in your neighborhood. For this you have to add income from all sources for all persons on a day to day basis and find out the average for each one of them. How long will it take for you to do this? One day, two days or one week? Do you know your small computer can finish this work in few seconds? The weather forecasting that you see every day on TV is the results of compilation and analysis of huge amount of data on temperature, humidity, pressure, etc. of various places on computers. It takes few minutes for the computer to process this huge amount of data and give the result.
You will be surprised to know that computer can perform millions (1,000,000) of instructions and even more per second. Therefore, we determine the speed of computer in terms of microsecond (10-6 part of a second) or nano-second (10-9 part of a second). From this you can imagine how fast your computer performs work.
 
Accuracy
           
Suppose some one calculates faster but commits a lot of errors in computing. Such result is useless. There is another aspect. Suppose you want to divide 15 by 7. You may work out up to 2 decimal places and say the dividend is 2.14. I may calculate up to 4 decimal places and say that the result is 2.1428. Some one else may go up to 9 decimal places and say the result is 2.142857143. Hence, in addition to speed, the computer should have accuracy or correctness in computing.
The degree of accuracy of computer is very high and every calculation is performed with the same accuracy. The accuracy level is determined on the basis of design of computer. The errors in computer are due to human and inaccurate data.
Diligence
            A computer is free from tiredness, lack of concentration, fatigue, etc. It can work for hours without creating any error. If millions of calculations are to be performed, a computer will perform every calculation with the same accuracy. Due to this capability it overpowers human being in routine type of work.
Versatility
            It means the capacity to perform completely different type of work. You may use your computer to prepare payroll slips. Next moment you may use it for inventory management or to prepare electric bills.
Power of Remembering
            Computer has the power of storing any amount of information or data. Any information can be stored and recalled as long as you require it, for any numbers of years. It depends entirely upon you how much data you want to store in a computer and when to lose or retrieve these data.
No IQ
            Computer is a dumb machine and it cannot do any work without instruction from the user. It performs the instructions at tremendous speed and with accuracy. It is you to decide what you want to do and in what sequence. So a computer cannot take its own decision as you can.
No Feeling
            It does not have feelings or emotion, taste, knowledge and experience. Thus it does not get tired even after long hours of work. It does not distinguish between users.
Storage
           
The Computer has an in-built memory where it can store a large amount of data. You can also store data in secondary storage devices such as floppies, which can be kept outside your computer and can be carried to other computers.
Q. Describe the components of computer in detail.
Computers come in all different shapes and forms (examples: desktops, laptops), but the main components that make up a computer pretty much stay the same. Components can also be refereed to as; hardware or parts.
Every computer Consists of the following basic components:

  1. Computer Case - Where all of the components are stored.

  2. CPU - It is basically the brain of your computer. The CPU is a used to process everything from basic to complex functions in a computer.

  3. RAM - RAM is memory that attaches to the motherboard. RAM is hardware used to temporarily store and access data.

  4. Motherboard - A Motherboard is the most important component in a computer system. All of the other hardware in a computer system connect to the motherboard.

  5. Power Supply - A Power Supply is the sends power to all of the other hardware so they can operate.

  6. Hard Drive - A Hard Drive is used for permanently storing files and programs.

  7. Disk Drives - Disk Drives can be a floppy drive, CD drive, DVD drive or other possible file storage devices that are used in a computer.

  8. Video Card - A Video Card is the part of a computer system that converts binary code from the CPU so you can view it on a monitor.

  9. Monitor - The part of a computer that allows you to see what the computer is processing.

  10. Keyboard - A keyboard allows a computer user to enter text commands into a computer system.

  11. Mouse - A mouse allows a computer user to use a point and click interface to enter commands.


Q. What are RAM and CPU? How they interact each other?
                RAM:
                                Random access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage. Today, it takes the form of integrated circuits that allow stored data to be accessed in any order with a worst case performance of constant time. Strictly speaking, modern types of DRAM are therefore not random access, as data is read in bursts, although the name DRAM / RAM has stuck. However, many types of SRAM, ROM, OTP, and NOR flash are still random access even in a strict sense. RAM is often associated with volatile types of memory (such as DRAM memory modules), where its stored information is lost if the power is removed. Many other types of non-volatile memory are RAM as well, including most types of ROM and a type of flash memory called NOR-Flash. The first RAM modules to come into the market were created in 1951 and were sold until the late 1960s and early 1970s.
                CPU:
                                The central processing unit (CPU) is the portion of a computer system that carries out the instructions of a computer program, to perform the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system. The CPU plays a role somewhat analogous to the brain in the computer. The term has been in use in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s.[1] The form, design and implementation of CPUs have changed dramatically since the earliest examples, but their fundamental operation remains much the same.
On large machines, CPUs require one or more printed circuit boards. On personal computers and small workstations, the CPU is housed in a single silicon chip called a microprocessor. Since the 1970s the microprocessor class of CPUs has almost completely overtaken all other CPU implementations. Modern CPUs are large scale integrated circuits in packages typically less than four centimeters square, with hundreds of connecting pins.
 
Q. For what purpose ROM is used in computers?
ROM:
                Read-only memory (ROM) is a class of storage medium used in computers and other electronic devices. Data stored in ROM cannot be modified, or can be modified only slowly or with difficulty, so it is mainly used to distribute firmware (software that is very closely tied to specific hardware, and unlikely to need frequent updates).
Every stored-program computer needs some form of non-volatile storage (that is, storage that retains its data when power is removed) to store the initial program that runs when the computer is powered on or otherwise begins execution (a process known as bootstrapping, often abbreviated to "booting" or "booting up"). Likewise, every non-trivial computer needs some form of mutable memory to record changes in its state as it executes.
CPU:
                The central processing unit (CPU) is the portion of a computer system that carries out the instructions of a computer program, to perform the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system. The CPU plays a role somewhat analogous to the brain in the computer. The term has been in use in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s.
On large machines, CPUs require one or more printed circuit boards. On personal computers and small workstations, the CPU is housed in a single silicon chip called a microprocessor. Two typical components of a CPU are the arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which performs arithmetic and logical operations, and the control unit (CU), which extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes them, calling on the ALU when necessary.
Q. What are I/O devices? Explain with examples?
Input devices:
         In computing, an input device is any peripheral (piece of computer hardware equipment) used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system such as a computer or other information appliance. Input and output devices make up the hardware interface between a computer and a scanner or 6DOF controller.
Many input devices can be classified according to:
§  modality of input (e.g. mechanical motion, audio, visual, etc.)
§  the input is discrete (e.g. key presses) or continuous (e.g. a mouse's position, though digitized into a discrete quantity, is fast enough to be considered continuous)
§  the number of degrees of freedom involved (e.g. two-dimensional traditional mice, or three-dimensional navigators designed for CAD applications)
Pointing devices, which are input devices used to specify a position in space, can further be classified according to:
§     Whether the input is direct or indirect. With direct input, the input space coincides with the display space, i.e. pointing is done in the space where visual feedback or the cursor appears. Touch screens and light pens involve direct input. Examples involving indirect input include the mouse and trackball.
Output device:
                An output device is any piece of computer hardware equipment used to communicate the results of data processing carried out by an information processing system (such as a computer) to the outside world.
In computing, input/output, or I/O, refers to the communication between an information processing system (such as a computer), and the outside world. Inputs are the signals or data sent to the system, and outputs are the signals or data sent by the system to the outside.
Examples of output devices:
§  Speakers
§  Headphones
§  Screen (Monitor)
§  Printer
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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