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 First Chapter Short Questions and Answers (Oct 2013)

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Posts : 114
Join date : 2012-10-29
Location : Lahore Pakistan

PostSubject: First Chapter Short Questions and Answers (Oct 2013)   Tue Oct 29, 2013 4:48 pm

Overview: Computer in Our World

Consider this sentence: “Computers are everywhere.”  In fact, you can find them in some pretty unlike places, including your family car, your home appliances, and even your alarm clock!
In the past two decades, computers have reshaped our lives at home, work and school. The vast majority of businesses now use computerized equipment in some way, and most companies are networked both internally and externally. More than half of all homes in the United State have at least one computer, and most of them connected to the internet.

Short Questions:

Q. What is computer?
In basic terms, a computer is an electronic device that process data, converting it into information that is useful to people.
A computer is an electronic device, which process data and performs different kinds of tasks according to a set of instructions given to it. A computer process data and converts it into useful information that can be used for large number of applications.

Q. What is Abacus?
Abacus was a simple calculating device. It was a wooden rack holding horizontal wires with a number of beds fed on them. The beads across the wires were free to move along the length of the wires. These beads were moved around, according to specified rules to perform the simple arithmetic operations.

Q. Why are computer so important?
People can list countless reasons for the importance of computer. For someone with a disability, for example, a computer may offer freedom to communicate, learn, or work without leaving home.

Q. What is Analytical Engine?
It was an automatic mechanical digital computer for general purpose use. It was the first automatic programmable computer. The analytical Engine included several features that are also present in the modem electronic computer.

Q. How many types of desktop computer? Write their names.
There are two types of desktop computers.
a) Macintosh
b) Personal Computer

Q. Who was invented transistors? Write its two advantages.
Transistors was invented in 1947 by William Shockley, John Bardeen and William Barttain.
a) A transistor can work 40 times faster than a vacuum tube.
b) Transistor does not get hot and burn out like a vacuum tube.

Q. What is difference between low level language and high level language?
Low level languages provide the programmer with a high degree of control but they require a detailed knowledge of the hardware to be used. They are required for advanced programming needs.
High level language are close to human languages and for from the machine languages. These are machine independent languages. These languages consist of English words, basic mathematical symbols and a few punctuation characters.
Q. What are Analog Computers?
The analog computers accept input and give output in the form of analog signals. The computers use electronic or mechanical phenomena to solve a problem by representing one kind of physical quantity to another.

Q. What are Digital Computers?
Digital computer represents physical quantities with the help of digits or numbers. These numbers are used to perform Arithmetic calculations and also make logical decision to reach a conclusion, depending on, the data they receive from the user.
Q. What is Hybrid Computers?
Various specifically designed computers are with both digital and analog characteristics combining the advantages of analog and digital computers when working as a system. Hybrid computers are being used extensively in process control system where it is necessary to have a close representation with the physical world.

Q. What is the purpose of Mainframe Computers?
Mainframe computers are second largest computers and commonly used in large organization like insurance companies and banks. Basically these computers are used in networked environment.  

Q. What is Microcomputers?
Microcomputers are also known as personal computers (PCs). These are typically developed for individual users. These are less powerful machines as compared to minicomputers. IBM developed the first microcomputers known as IBM-PC.

Q. What is Punched card tabulator?
Herman Hollerith developed the first electromechanical punched card tabulator. The tabulator could read information that had been punched into cards. These cards were maintained in stack form. A solution to different stacks of cards and accessed when needed.

Q. What is Language translator?
Language translators are the programs that translate a high or low level language program into machine code.

Q. What is Assembly Language?
Assembly language is a low-level language. It is very close to machine language. The commands are represented in assembly language by short names called mnemonics. Pronounced as “ni’mo-niks”.

Q. What is Assembler?
Assembler is a language translator that translates an assembly language program into machine code.

Q. What is Source Program?
A program written in any high-level programming language is called the source program. The source program is translated to machine code with the help of language processor program before to run in the computer.

Q. What is Object Program?
The translated program into machine code is called the object program.

Q. What is Interpreter?
An interpreter works like a compiler. It checks the whole program and then translates each line of the program one by one. It is a slowest program.

Q. What is Compiler?
A compiler is complex system software that automatically converts a program written in some high-level language into an equivalent low-level machine language. The compiler or the language processor converts the entire program into machine code before execution.

Q. What is Low Level Language?
Low level languages provide the programmer with a high degree of control but they require a detailed knowledge of the hardware to be used. They are required for advance programming needs.

Q. What is High Level Language?
High level languages are close to human languages and far from the machine languages. These are machine independent languages. These languages consist of English words, basic mathematical symbols and a few punctuation characters.

Q. What is ENIAC?
ENIAC stands for Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator. It was the first general purpose electronic digital computer designed in 1946.

Q. Define Classification of Computers.
Computers are available in different size and powers. Different computers have different capabilities. Today’s    we classified computers in four groups are as:
• Super computers
• Main frame computers
• Mini computers
• Microcomputers

Q. What is the role of computer in our daily life?
Today, computer is playing very important role in every field of life. Most of the machine like microwave ovens, automobiles, washing machines and even wristwatches contain computer chips. Computer programs are embedded in these chips that control the operations of these devices. In fact, computers are so common in modern society that everyone is affected by computer technology to some extent. Some examples of computer application are as follows:
1. Controlling space flights
2. Landing airplanes
3. Tracking inventory
4. Printing books
5. Turning on light at a specified time
6. Checking out sale products at the checkout counter.

Q. What is stands for BASIC?
BASIC is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use; the name is an acronym from Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.

Q. What is stands for COBOL?
COBOL is one of the oldest programming languages. The COBOL 2002 standard includes support for object-oriented programming and other modern language features.

Q. What is LISP?
LISP is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized Polish prefix notation. Originally specified in 1958, Lisp is the second-oldest high-level programming language in widespread use today; only FORTRAN is older (by one year).

Q. What is Pascal?
Pascal is an influential imperative and procedural programming language, designed in 1968–1969 and published in 1970 by Nicklaus Wirth as a small and efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring.

Q. What are computer application programs?
A computer application is the result of a lot of programming. These allow the user to perform certain tasks that they otherwise would not be able to. Computer applications are another name for computer software.

Q. What is stands for UPC?
The item at departmental store is marked with “barcode” known as Universal Production Code (UPC).

Q. What are the Ages of Computers?
At the early age people used pebbles, stones, sticks, scratches, symbols and finger tips to count, which were later replaced by numbers.
The history of computing is divided into three ages during which man invented and improved different types of calculating machines. These ages are,
 Dark age - 300 BC to 1890
 Middle age - 1890 AD to 1944
 Modern age - since 1944 AD

Q. What is Internet?
Internet is the largest network of the world that connects computers located t different parts of the world. The Internet has had a huge impact on society. The Internet provides information and service, as well as the ability to communicate to people all around the world in a variety of ways.

Q. Describe any two characteristics of a computer.
Following are two characteristics of a computer:
1) Speed
Computer is very fast electronic device. It can perform a large amount of work in a few seconds. Thus, speed is one of the characteristics of the computer.
2) Storage
Computer can store a large amount of data into its memory and we can get stored data when needed.

Q. What is a Pocket Computer?
Pocket or palmtop computers are very small in size and can be fit in your pocket. This type of computer uses special operating system. A pocket computer has a small rechargeable battery used to operate it.

Q. What is Laptop Computer?
Portable and compact personal computer with the same capabilities as a desktop computer. Laptop computers have an L-shape design and the screen can be lowered and closed to allow for easy transportation of the machine.

Q. Write the negative impacts of internet on the society?
1. The student waste their precious hours on sitting on Internet without taking any positive and constructive benefit.
2. Most of the people using Internet to satisfy their negative desires.
3. Adult material is easily available through Internet which destroys the moral values of young boys and girls.
4. Computer hacking is very common by the use of Internet some extreme minded people can digest the money through the use of credit cards of others.
5. The students waste their time in useless talking with each other.
6. Several hours on Internet without any purpose produce wrong effects on a person.

Q. Write the advantages of Internet.
Advantages of Internet

1. It gives information about every field of life.
2. You may take advantages from encyclopedias and dictionaries with the help of Internet.
3. You may get information according to your need through Internet.
4. It gives a co-ordination with whole world and its interests.
5. It helps to exchange views with the person of same mental attitude.
6. Internet brings the world closer.
7. Current happening incident can be discovered by the use of Internet.
8. Any kind of topic related with politics, fashion, science etc can be discovered by use of Internet.

Q. What is the definition of Internet?
The internet is the central part that makes up the computer. The internet is software that has revolutionized the way people communicate with each other. Here are three basic facts that people need to learn about the internet:
• It is a crucial piece for peoples' freedom and prosperity.
• It is the main computer tool that helps people get through work and school.
• The internet instantly and efficiently allows you to research the things you want to find out.


Q. Describe the advancement in the computer during the 1950’s and 1960’s.
In early 1950s, two important discoveries changed the structure of electronic digital computer. These discoveries were the magnetic core memories and the transistors. In this way new models of digital computers were introduced having very high computing speed and storage capacities. These computers have following features:
 These computers were very expensive and also complicated to operate.
 Such computer were mostly used in large computer organizations, government and research laboratories.
 These computers mostly worked on a single task at a time.
 The central processing units (CPUs) of these computers were very slow.
 These computers system were sold for applications such as hospitals, banks etc.
These computers were widely used in business for the following purposes:
1. Accounting 2. Payroll 3. Inventory Control 4. Ordering Supplies
5.   Billing etc.

Q. Define computer applications and also write the names of computer applications.
Computers have proliferated into various areas of our lives. For a user, computer is a tool that provides the desired information, whenever needed. You may use computer to get information about the reservation of tickets (railways, airplanes and cinema halls), books in a library, medical history of a person, a place in a map, or the dictionary meaning of a word. The information may be presented to you in the form of text, images, video clips, etc.
• Education: Computers are extensively used, as a tool and as an aid, for imparting education. Educators use computers to prepare notes and presentations of their lectures. Computers are used to develop computer-based training packages, to provide distance education using the e-learning software, and to conduct online examinations. Researchers use computers to get easy access to conference and journal details and to get global access to the research material.
• Entertainment: Computers have had a major impact on the entertainment industry. The user can download and view movies, play games, chat, book tickets for cinema halls, use multimedia for making movies, incorporate visual and sound effects using computers, etc. The users can also listen to music, download and share music, create music using computers, etc.
• Sports a computer can be used to watch a game, view the scores, improve the game, play games (like chess, etc.) and create games. They are also used for the purposes of training players.
• Advertising: Computer is a powerful advertising media. Advertisement can be displayed on different websites, electronic-mails can be sent and reviews of a product by different customers can be posted. Computers are also used to create an advertisement using the visual and the sound effects. For the advertisers, computer is a medium via which the advertisements can be viewed globally. Web advertising has become a significant factor in the marketing plans of almost all companies. In fact, the business model of Google is mainly dependent on web advertising for generating revenues.
• Medicine Medical researchers and practitioners use computers to access information about the advances in medical research or to take opinion of doctors globally. The medical history of patients is stored in the computers. Computers are also an integral part of various kinds of sophisticated medical equipments like ultrasound machine, CAT scan machine, MRI scan machine, etc. Computers also provide assistance to the medical surgeons during critical surgery operations like laparoscopic operations, etc.
• Science and Engineering Scientists and engineers use computers for performing complex scientific calculations, for designing and making drawings (CAD/CAM applications) and also for simulating and testing the designs. Computers are used for storing the complex data, performing complex calculations and for visualizing 3-dimensional objects. Complex scientific applications like the launch of the rockets, space exploration, etc., are not possible without the computers.

• Government The government uses computers to manage its own operations and also for e-governance. The websites of the different government departments provide information to the users. Computers are used for the filing of income tax return, paying taxes, online submission of water and electricity bills, for the access of land record details, etc. The police department uses computers to search for criminals using fingerprint matching, etc.
• Home Computers have now become an integral part of home equipment. At home, people use computers to play games, to maintain the home accounts, for communicating with friends and relatives via Internet, for paying bills, for education and learning, etc. Microprocessors are embedded in house hold utilities like, washing machines, TVs, food processors, home theatres, security devices, etc.
The list of applications of computers is so long that it is not possible to discuss all of them here. In addition to the applications of the computers discussed above, computers have also proliferated into areas like banks, investments, stock trading, accounting, ticket reservation, military operations, meteorological predictions, social networking, business organizations, police department, video conferencing, book publishing, web newspapers, and information sharing.
Q. Briefly explain the features of First generation computers.
The duration lasted from 1946-1959 was based on vacuum tubes. These vacuum tubes were about the size of 100 watt light bulb and used as the internal computer component. However because thousands of such bulbs were used, the computers were very large and generate a large amount of heat, causing many problems in temperature regulation and climate control.
In this generation input and out put device (punched card) that was used fro data storing purpose were very slow. The computers were operating manually and the language used was a low level machine language (symbolic language) with binary code that required a high programming skill. ENIAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC and Mark-1 were some of the major inventions of this generation.
Advantages of First Generation
1. Vacuum tubes were used as electronic component.
2. Electronic digital computers were developed for the first time.
3. These computers were the fastest calculating devices of their time.
4. Computations were performed in millisecond.
Disadvantages of First Generation
1. Too large in size.
2. They were unreliable.
3. Induce a large amount of heat due to the vacuum tubes.
5. Not portable.
6. Limited commercial use.

Q. Briefly explain the features of Second generation computers.
The period of this generation is from 1959 to 1964. During this period transistor were used for internal logic circuits of computers. These computers could execute 200000 instructions per second. The input/output devices became much faster by the use of magnetic table. During this period the low level programming language were used however the high level programming languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL were also used. The problem of heat maintenance was solved and size of computer reduced, while speed and reliability were increased. Many companies manufactured second generation computers and many of those for business applications. The most popular second generation computer was IBM-1401, introduced in 1960, while the following computers were used by many business organizations. IBM-1400 series, IBM-1600 series, UNIVAC-III, NCR-300 etc.

Advantages of Second Generation
1. Smaller in size as compares to 1st generation.
2. Much more reliable.
3. Less heat generated.
4. Computation was performing in micro second.
5. Less hardware and maintenance problem.
6. Could be used for commercial use.

Disadvantages of Second Generation
1. Very costly for commercial use.
2. It still required frequent maintenance.
3. Frequent cooling also required.

Q. Briefly explain the features of third generation computers.
In this generation the integrated circuits (IC) were used. Integrated circuits contain many electronic components on a single chip. The disk oriented systems wee made at the end of this generation. The size of computer became very small with better performance and reliability. High level programming languages were extensively used. In 1969 the first microprocessor chip INTEL 4004 was developed but it was used only in calculators. The faster input/output devices made possible multi-processing and multi programming. Where by a number of input terminals could be run virtually at the same time on a single centrally located computer. The famous computer were IBM-360, IBM-370, UNIVAC 9000 series etc.
Advantages of Third Generation
1. Smaller in size as compared to second generation.
2. More reliable.
3. Portable
4. Less electricity consumption.
5. Heat generation was rare.
6. General purpose computer.

Disadvantages of Third Generation
1. Air conditioning was required in many cases due to ICs.
2. Very advance technology was required to make the ICs.

Q. Briefly explain the features of Forth generation computers.
The Integrated circuits were more developed and called Small scale integration (SSI), after some time the SSI were more developed and termed as Large scale integration (LSI). There was a great versatility of input/output devices. In 1971, a powerful microprocessor chip INTEL 8008 was introduced. The first microprocessor which is used in personal computers (PC) was INTEL 8080. The 8 inch floppy disk was also introduced in 1971, while hard disk was introduced in 1973. The 5.25 floppy disk was first time used in 1978. The optical disk was developed in 1980. First portable computer "Osborne I" was marketed in 1981. IBM-3033, IBM-370, IBM system 34, IBM system 36, Cray-I, CP/M etc were introduced in this generation.

Advantages of Fourth Generation
1. Smaller in size and much reliable.
2. No cooling system required in many cases.
3. Much faster computation.
4. Portable and cheap.
5. The heat generated was negligible.
6. Totally general purpose computer.

Disadvantages of Fourth Generation
1. Very advanced technology was required to fabricate to the ICs.

Q. Briefly explain the features of Fifth generation computers.
This generation is started from 1981 and still continued, new technologies are adopted to fabricate IC chips, such as electron beam, X-rays or laser rays. The Very Large Scale Integration
(VLSI) was developed, so the computer became much smaller than ever before. New memory storage device like bubble memory, optical or memory are being designed. the new computer will be controlled by using human voice and will work by giving command in our own language. Future computer will in some way to be intelligent and capable of making decision.

Advantages of Fifth Generation
1. Very large storage capacity.
2. Long bit processor builds.
3. Artificial Intelligence Language developed.


Short Questions

Q. Answer the following questions.

1. What is a computer? Why computers are important for us?
2. Define the advancement in 1950’s to 1960’s.
3. What is the difference between Analog and Digital computer.
4. Define the following
a. Pocket Computer
b. Laptop Computer
c. Micro Computer
5. Differentiate between High level and Low level languages.
6. What is compiler and interpreter?
7. Write the negative impacts of internet on the society?
8. Define computer applications and also write the names of computer applications.
9. Define any two of them
a. 1st Generation of Computers
b. 2nd Generation of Computers
c. 3rd Generation of Computers
d. 4th Generation of Computers  
e. 5th Generation of Computers
10. Define classification of computers.
11. What is source program and object program?
12. How many desktop computer are there? Write their names.
13. What is ENIAC?
14. Describe any two characteristics of a computer.
15. What is UPC?

Long Questions

Q. Answer the following questions.

1. Briefly explain the features of third generation computers.
2. Write short note on BASIC and also define source program.
3. Describe some negative aspects of the use of Internet in our society.
4. Write short note on the following
a. Laptop computers
b. Visual Basic
c. Micro Computers
5. Describe the uses of computer in different fields.

Q. You have four choices of each objective type question as A, B, C, D. The choice which you think is true; circle the option.
i. A terminal consist of:
a. A keyboard, mouse and printer c. Mouse and monitor
b. Keyboard and monitor d. System unit and I/O devices

ii. Micro computer is
a. Faster than microcomputer c. smaller in size than micro computer
b. Expensive than microcomputer d. both (a) and (b)

iii. The language designed for artificial intelligence research is called:

iv. Which is the first calculating device?
a. Analytical Engine c. Napier’s Bones
b. Difference Engine d. Abacus

v. When where general-purpose analog computers first built in?
a. 1930’s c. 1950’s
b. 1940’s d. 1960’s

vi. Which of the following type of computer is the best for solving algebraic equations?
a. Analog Computer c. Hybird Computer
b. Digital Computer   d. Laptop

vii. Which of the following computer uses special pen and touch sensitive screen to enter data?
a. Desktop Computer c. Pocket Computer
b. Laptop Computer   d. Analog Computer

viii. A transmission software which converts each statement of a program in a high-level language into machine language is called:
a. Compiler c. Interpreter
b. Assembler d. All of these

ix. The third generation computer used:
a. Vacuum Tubes c. Transistors
b. Integrated circuits   d. Microprocessors

x. Computer which are also called personal computers:
a. Super Computers c. Micro-computers
b. Mini Computers   d. Digital Computers

xi. Which of the following is not a high level language?
a. Fortran c. C and C++
b. Basic d. Assembly language

xii. The idea of difference engine was conceived by:
a. Blasé Pascal c. Von Leibniz
b. Charles Babbage d. Napier

Q. NOTE: You have four choice for each objective type question as A, B, C and D. The choice which you think is correct; fill that circle in front of that question number. Use marker or pen to fill the circle. Cutting or filling two or more circles will result in zero mark in that question.

1. The heart of a computer system is:
a. CPU b. Control unit c. ALU d. System unit

2. Which of the following devices is not inside the CPU?
a. RAM b. The Hard Disk c. CD-ROM Drivers d. The Modem

3. A port which provides a connection for transmitting a data of eight bits at a time is:
a. Serial port b. Parallel port c. Mouse port d. All of these

4. A temporary storage device is:
a. ALU b. Main memory c. Control Unit d. Register

5. A 32 bit bus can transfer data at a time:
a. 8 bytes b. 8 nibbles c. 4 characters d. 32 bytes

6. An input device is:
a. Keyboard b. Printer c. Monitor d. Plotter

7. The most important part of a computer hardware is:
a. CPU b. Control unit c. Operating System d. Main memory

8. The physical parts of the computer system that you can touch and feel are known as:
a. Input devices b. Computer software
b. c. Output devices d. Computer hardware

9. The program that is responsible for controlling and managing the actual operations of the computer hardware:
a. Application software b. System software c. Computer software d. Computer program

10. Which of the following is not a type of bus inn computer?
a. Data Bus b. Address Bus c. Power Bus d. Control Bus

11. Which of the following is not a hardware component of computer?
a. Input unit b. Software c. Output unit d. System unit

12. Which of the following input device is used to enter image data inside the computer?
a. Scanner b. Microphone c. Keyboard d. Mouse

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